After her husband’s dying, she needed to manage the assets of the household for over twenty years. Once again, her life provides an example of a woman turning into a significant landowner after changing into a widow, and efficiently managing her haciendas for an extended interval. María Bárbara de Molina y Agüero (c. )82 was the wife of Miguel Herrera y Rojas83, a member of the mayorazgo Herrera y Rojas. In 1808, her husband died, leaving her in charge of the haciendas and two children, at the age of twenty nine, and she survived her husband for over half a century. We have right here one other case of a widow becoming a major landowner for a protracted period.
At this level, it is value mentioning that the husband of María Bárbara de Molina was linked to the same household of Mercedes Rojas , as we will see in a while. Ana Josefa de Azúa y Marín , Marquise of Cañada , inherited this title after the death https://yourmailorderbride.com/chilean-women of her brother José Tomás in . Furthermore, even earlier than the dying of her brother, her mom María Constanza Marín, who was nonetheless alive, left her the Hacienda Chicureo, as part of the inheritance from her father78.
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Given the extant evidence, our evaluation was necessarily confined to women members of the elite, for whom there are surviving records in Chilean archives. Even so little info exists about many of the women listed in tables 5–7, so they have been necessarily excluded from our account. Ideally, we had wished to incorporate additionally Chilean women from decrease socioeconomic strata, however no main sources have been obtainable. For occasion, in , María Ballesteros ranked sixth among all landowners with regard to annual earnings, second in the rating of complete hectares owned, first within the ranking of ovine cattle holders, and fourth within the rating of main holders of bovine cattle of the nation.
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She married Francisco de Paula Ramírez de Saldaña Velasco (Francisco Ramírez in major sources)113, and after Francisco’s death, Gertrudis had no other option however to manage the haciendas. Indeed, she legally grew to become proprietor and manager of the haciendas following the partition of goods of her deceased husband114. They had many youngsters , together with José Manuel, Juan Enrique and Miguel Ramírez115.
Next is Elena Valladares, registered as proprietor of Hacienda Nancagua, in San Fernando, of about 1,800 hectares108 and for whom we could not gather a lot information109. Likewise, we now have Dolores Ramírez, owner of Hacienda El Armague, in Caupolicán, Colchagua.
Ana Josefa is barely identified to Chilean historiography, solely talked about in passing in some works as a result of she was the nice aunt of Constanza de Nordenflycht, lover of Diego Portales79, with whom Constanza had three children80. But she must be higher recognized as a result of, despite residing in Santiago (in Compañía road), like María Ballesteros, she managed for over 20 years a big plot, namely the Hacienda Purutún of Quillota, which had an impressive extension of almost 35,000 hectares. The origin of this Hacienda dates again to the early seventeenth century in Chile, which then operated beneath the encomienda system. Ana Josefa additionally owned and managed other giant properties similar to Pucalán, El Melón and Carretón, which were inherited from her household.
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Like Candelaria Goyenechea, Dolores additionally invested in shares within the railways sector, buying ten shares of Ferrocarril del Sur110. Another prominent woman during this period was Micaela Errázuriz Aldunate , from Quillota, who was the daughter of Francisco Javier de Errázuriz Madariaga ( ) and María Rosa Aldunate Guerrero ( ).
She by no means got married, leaving no descendants, which makes her an interesting case because she turned a serious landowner with out being a widow81. That is, it was potential in Chile, even at this early period, to be a significant feminine landowner without having to get married, and regardless of antagonistic authorized circumstances.
One of the few things we find out about her is that she married Ramón Ovalle Soto. In the identical vein, Trinidad Cortés y Cabrera (b.1791), from Los Andes, owned the haciendas San Vicente, San Antonio and del Castillo. She married José María de Araya y Gacitúa, but she survived him and managed the above talked about haciendas, which were inherited by their son, José Gregorio111. In turn, Gertrudis Rosales Larraín, a member of two of crucial households of late colonial Chile, was once the owner of Hacienda de las Tablas from Casablanca, in addition to that of Tunquén and Quintay112.
Finally, María Mercedes Ramírez de Saldaña was the owner of Hacienda de San Regis, in San Felipe, also a part of mayorazgo Toro y Mazote, and was married in 1797 to José Santiago de Ugarte Salinas116, additionally a member of one of many elite colonial families117. Next on our list is María Teresa Alcalde y Bascuñán ( ), who obtained married to José Tomás de Vicuña y Madariaga (b.1769, main of Santiago in 1807, who died in 1826) in . She was none aside from the daughter of José Antonio Alcalde Rivera , Third Count of Quinta Alegre, and Mercedes Rosa de Pineda Bascuñán y Meneses85. Although she didn’t inherit a lot from the Alcalde family, José Tomás de Vicuña y Madariaga introduced his fortune to the wedding, including the haciendas Piguchen and Toro, each in San Antonio, with a combined extension of over 1,200 hectares86.